This is an exercise to learn about TLS, OpenSSL's command line tool, and SMTP.
Gmail's SMTP server is a feature offered to its users which requires a TLS connection, and a username and password authentication. The username is your @gmail.com email address. Gina Trapani wrote an article on Lifehacker in 2005 on how to configure your email client to use Google's SMTP server.
Now I am studying all things SMTP related in order to deploy my own
personnal SMTP server. Here is the geeky way of sending mail through
Google's SMTP server using the command line. I am on a GNU/Linux
terminal and OpenSSL's command line tool —
— is available.
Prepare your credentials
AUTH LOGIN authentication method requires base64
encoding your username and password.
bash$ openssl base64 <<< email@example.com c29tZV9kdWRlQGdtYWlsLmNvbQo= bash$ openssl base64 <<< lame_password bGFtZV9wYXNzd29yZAo=
Connect to smtp.gmail.com
If the SMTP server doesn't require a TLS connection, we could just
telnet into it. We will be using
for this exercise.
Following the practice in RFCs documenting SMTP, lines starting with
are typed and those starting with
S: are server replies. Some gibberish was
removed from the server replies for simplification.
bash$ openssl s_client -connect smtp.gmail.com:587 -starttls smtp -crlf S: 250 C: AUTH LOGIN S: 334 VXNlcm5hbWU6 C: c29tZV9kdWRlQGdtYWlsLmNvbQo= S: 334 UGFzc3dvcmQ6 C: bGFtZV9wYXNzd29yZAo= S: 235 Accepted C: MAIL FROM:<firstname.lastname@example.org> S: 250 OK C: rcpt to:<email@example.com> S: 250 OK C: DATA S: 354 Go ahead C: To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com Subject: Test email through smtp.google.ca with openssl Message's body. . S: 250 OK C: QUIT S: 221 closing connection bash$
Let's study the command line options passed to
opensslsubcommand implements a generic SSL/TLS client intended for testing purposes.
- Connect to Google's SMTP server on port 587. Note that port 25 is for mail transmission, wheras port 587 is the official port for mail submission.
This option instructs
s_clientto send the
STARTTLSsmtp command and perform the TLS negotiation with the server. All subsequent TCP communication will be tunnelled through TLS, allowing for secure authentication.
- Convert LF from terminal into CRLF as required by RFC5321.
s_client interprets lines starting with R or Q as his own
commands. This is why you must send the SMTP command
in lowercase. You must also pay attention to your base64 encoded
DATA content for any lines starting with R or
Q. You can prepend a space to your username and password if
man 1 s_client for more information. Don't hesitate to send
me a message at
if you have a question or a comment.
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